Urad cultivation, or Mash farming in general, is practised by Indian farmers. It is a member of the essential pulse crop family. Moreover, Dal is an important breakfast ingredient for Indians. The primary producers of mash are MP, UP, Punjab, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. According to a survey (2012-13), farmers in Punjab practise mash farming on 2.2 thousand hectares of land.
Let us now look at the needs and requirements for mash farming. With this knowledge, you can easily practise mash farming.
Mash Farming Tips
You must follow some instructions in order to cultivate Urad. And the farming instructions and requirements are listed below. So take your time reading them and get ready to cultivate Mash.
For mash farming, keep a temperature range of 15 to 30°C in mind. As a result, you can expect a high yield from this crop. Aside from that, you must sow the crop at a temperature of 25 to 35°C to ensure proper seed germination. And the ideal rainfall for this crop is 50 to 75cm. On the other hand, the crop should be harvested at temperatures ranging from 18 to 25°C.
You should not cultivate mash in saline-alkaline soils, and you should also avoid saturated soils. However, grow it in stiff loamy or heavy soils if you want better germination and a higher yield. Where good water retentive capacity is required. Aside from that, you must prepare the land with the help of excellent tractors such as the Eicher 548 and other farm implements.
In the Indian farming sector, a variety of mash varieties are available. Farmers, on the other hand, primarily cultivate a few of them, which are:
Mash 338 has 3.5 QTL per acre, Mash 114 has 3.7 QTL per acre, Mash 218 has 4 QTL per acre, Mash 414 has 4.3 QTL per acre, and Mash 1008 has 4.6 QTL per acre.
Other state varieties include:
Aside from the varieties mentioned above, you can also see the following state varieties:
- Type 27
- Pant 430
- HPU 6
- T 65
- LBG 22
- Type 56
- Pusa 1
- LBG 402
- LBG 20
Preparation of Land
Because the field should have a fine tilth, you should plough it twice or three times. You should also keep the area weed-free. As a result, you can apply planking after each ploughing to keep the field weed-free. These operations can be completed with the assistance of high-quality tractors such as the Eicher 333 and others. You should also select a high-performing farm implement for these operations.
The best time to plant mash crops is between the last week of June and the first week of July. Summer cultivation, on the other hand, summer cultivation necessitates sowing from March to April. And you should sow it in the sub-mountainous regions from July 15 to July 25. You should also leave 10 cm between plants and 30 cm between rows. On the other hand, Ravi cultivation requires a row space of 22.5 cm and a plant to plant space of 4 to 5 cm. As a result, a sowing depth of 4 to 6 cm is recommended for increased yield. Furthermore, cultivation methods include Kera, Pora, and seed drill sowing.
Mash is a Kharif crop, so rinse the field as needed depending on the weather. When the crop needs to be rinsed, you should provide water.
Pests and diseases
A variety of pests and diseases can harm crops. So, in order to solve this, we must apply some chemicals to the crop. So, let us learn more about them.
Pests and their management:
- Spray Malathion@375ml, Oxydemeton Methyl@250ml, or Dimethoate@250ml/acre on sucking pests.
- Tobacco caterpillar – Apply a spray of Chlorpyriphos 20EC at 1.5Ltr/acre or Acephate 57SP at 800gm/acre.
- Hairy Caterpillar – Apply Dichlorvos at 200ml or Quinalphos at 500ml/acre.
- Spray Acephate 75SP@800gm, Indoxacarb 14.5SC@200ml, or Spinosad 45SC@60ml/acre on pod borer.
- Dimethoate 30EC@150ml/acre mite spray
- Spray Acephate 75SC@800gm or Indoxacarb 14.5SC@200ml/acre on blister beetles.
Diseases and their treatment:
- Yellow mosaic virus – Triazophos @ 600ml, Thiamethoxam @ 40gm /acre spray
- Cercospora leaf spot – 400gm/acre spray of Zineb 75WP
It is time to harvest the mash crop when the leaves have shed, and the pods have turned greyish black. To begin, cut the crop with a sickle or reapers and spread the harvested mash crop on the ground to dry. Finally, threshing is required to separate the crop seeds from the pods.
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